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17 June 2011

Ko je ovaj čovek?


As he smashed the feu­dal sys­tem of aris­to­crat­ic priv­ilege and birth, he built a new and unique sys­tem based on in­di­vid­ual mer­it, loy­al­ty, and achieve­ment. He took the dis­joint­ed and lan­guorous trad­ing towns ... and or­ga­nized them in­to his­to­ry’s largest free-​trade zone. He low­ered tax­es for ev­ery­one, and abol­ished them al­to­geth­er for doc­tors, teach­ers, priests, and ed­uca­tion­al in­sti­tu­tions. He es­tab­lished a reg­ular cen­sus and cre­at­ed the first in­ter­na­tion­al postal sys­tem. His was not an em­pire that hoard­ed wealth and trea­sure; in­stead, he wide­ly dis­tribut­ed the goods ac­quired in com­bat so that they could make their way back in­to com­mer­cial cir­cu­la­tion. He cre­at­ed an in­ter­na­tion­al law and rec­og­nized the ul­ti­mate supreme law of the Eter­nal Blue Sky over all peo­ple. At a time when most rulers con­sid­ered them­selves to be above the law, ... in­sist­ed on laws hold­ing rulers as equal­ly ac­count­able as the low­est herder. He grant­ed re­li­gious free­dom with­in his realms, though he de­mand­ed to­tal loy­al­ty from con­quered sub­jects of all re­li­gions. He in­sist­ed on the rule of law and abol­ished tor­ture, but he mount­ed ma­jor cam­paigns to seek out and kill raid­ing ban­dits and ter­ror­ist as­sas­sins. He re­fused to hold hostages and, in­stead, in­sti­tut­ed the nov­el prac­tice of grant­ing diplo­mat­ic im­mu­ni­ty for all am­bas­sadors and en­voys, in­clud­ing those from hos­tile na­tions with whom he was at war.

Iz knjige Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World.

4 comments:

Срђан said...

Ma ko je ovo napisao?

Mongoli su ustanovili vladavinu zakona... Postu...

Pre ce biti teror i neprekidno razaranje!

Pitanje:
Sta je to ostalo od Dzingis-kana?

Marko Paunović said...

Zato i jeste zanimljiva knjiga, sto dovodi u pitanje preovladjujuce misljenje.

Evo odgovora autora na pitanje sta je ostalo od Mongola:

The Mon­gols made no tech­no­log­ical break­throughs, found­ed no new re­li­gions, wrote few books or dra­mas, and gave the world no new crops or meth­ods of agri­cul­ture. Their own crafts­men could not weave cloth, cast met­al, make pot­tery, or even bake bread. They man­ufac­tured nei­ther porce­lain nor pot­tery, paint­ed no pic­tures, and built no build­ings. Yet, as their army con­quered cul­ture af­ter cul­ture, they col­lect­ed and passed all of these skills from one civ­iliza­tion to the next.

The on­ly per­ma­nent struc­tures Genghis Khan erect­ed were bridges. Al­though he spurned the build­ing of cas­tles, forts, cities, or walls, as he moved across the land­scape, he prob­ably built more bridges than any ruler in his­to­ry. He spanned hun­dreds of streams and rivers in or­der to make the move­ment of his armies and goods quick­er. The Mon­gols de­lib­er­ate­ly opened the world to a new com­merce not on­ly in goods, but al­so in ideas and knowl­edge. The Mon­gols brought Ger­man min­ers to Chi­na and Chi­nese doc­tors to Per­sia. The trans­fers ranged from the mon­umen­tal to the triv­ial. They spread the use of car­pets ev­ery­where they went and trans­plant­ed lemons and car­rots from Per­sia to Chi­na, as well as noo­dles, play­ing cards, and tea from Chi­na to the West. They brought a met­al­work­er from Paris to build a foun­tain on the dry steppes of Mon­go­lia, re­cruit­ed an En­glish no­ble­man to serve as in­ter­preter in their army, and took the prac­tice of Chi­nese fin­ger­print­ing to Per­sia. They fi­nanced the build­ing of Chris­tian church­es in Chi­na, Bud­dhist tem­ples and stu­pas in Per­sia, and Mus­lim Ko­ran­ic schools in Rus­sia. The Mon­gols swept across the globe as con­querors, but al­so as civ­iliza­tion’s un­ri­valed cul­tur­al car­ri­ers.

The Mon­gols who in­her­it­ed Genghis Khan’s em­pire ex­er­cised a de­ter­mined drive to move prod­ucts and com­modi­ties around and to com­bine them in ways that pro­duced en­tire­ly nov­el prod­ucts and un­prece­dent­ed in­ven­tion. When their high­ly skilled en­gi­neers from Chi­na, Per­sia, and Eu­rope com­bined Chi­nese gun­pow­der with Mus­lim flamethrow­ers and ap­plied Eu­ro­pean bell-​cast­ing tech­nol­ogy, they pro­duced the can­non, an en­tire­ly new or­der of tech­no­log­ical in­no­va­tion, from which sprang the vast mod­ern ar­se­nal of weapons from pis­tols to mis­siles. While each item had some sig­nif­icance, the larg­er im­pact came in the way the Mon­gols se­lect­ed and com­bined tech­nolo­gies to cre­ate un­usu­al hy­brids.

Срђан said...

Uh. Autor je zaljubljen u Mongole, pa su mu zaključci zamagljeni. Pored toga, moram reći da su mi posve novi podaci poput saksonskih rudara u Kini, ili engleskih prevodilaca... To su baš revolucionarni podaci.

Pretpostavljam da je trgovina, razmena dobara i znanja, ono što Vas je navelo da objavite ovaj tekst, ali da skrenem pažnju:
taj je prostor bio itekako živ pre Džingis-kana, sva je prilika i življi pre pojava mongolskih vojski, koje odlikuje razaranje velikih gradova, teror i pokolj.

Speaker said...

Meni je dosta da su se Mongoli napili krvi Rusima, i to je dovoljna zasluga da im ja budem zahvalan :)) Usput, bili su uspešni i na drugim frontovima, genetičari kažu da, sa vrlo velikom verovatnoćom, jer nosi jedan karakterističan genetski marker koji je lako pratiti, Džingis-kanova loza danas ima preko osamnaest miliona potomaka širom sveta, a ponajviše, naravno, u Aziji :)))