17 June 2011

Ko je ovaj čovek?

As he smashed the feu­dal sys­tem of aris­to­crat­ic priv­ilege and birth, he built a new and unique sys­tem based on in­di­vid­ual mer­it, loy­al­ty, and achieve­ment. He took the dis­joint­ed and lan­guorous trad­ing towns ... and or­ga­nized them in­to his­to­ry’s largest free-​trade zone. He low­ered tax­es for ev­ery­one, and abol­ished them al­to­geth­er for doc­tors, teach­ers, priests, and ed­uca­tion­al in­sti­tu­tions. He es­tab­lished a reg­ular cen­sus and cre­at­ed the first in­ter­na­tion­al postal sys­tem. His was not an em­pire that hoard­ed wealth and trea­sure; in­stead, he wide­ly dis­tribut­ed the goods ac­quired in com­bat so that they could make their way back in­to com­mer­cial cir­cu­la­tion. He cre­at­ed an in­ter­na­tion­al law and rec­og­nized the ul­ti­mate supreme law of the Eter­nal Blue Sky over all peo­ple. At a time when most rulers con­sid­ered them­selves to be above the law, ... in­sist­ed on laws hold­ing rulers as equal­ly ac­count­able as the low­est herder. He grant­ed re­li­gious free­dom with­in his realms, though he de­mand­ed to­tal loy­al­ty from con­quered sub­jects of all re­li­gions. He in­sist­ed on the rule of law and abol­ished tor­ture, but he mount­ed ma­jor cam­paigns to seek out and kill raid­ing ban­dits and ter­ror­ist as­sas­sins. He re­fused to hold hostages and, in­stead, in­sti­tut­ed the nov­el prac­tice of grant­ing diplo­mat­ic im­mu­ni­ty for all am­bas­sadors and en­voys, in­clud­ing those from hos­tile na­tions with whom he was at war.

Iz knjige Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World.


Anonymous said...

Ma ko je ovo napisao?

Mongoli su ustanovili vladavinu zakona... Postu...

Pre ce biti teror i neprekidno razaranje!

Sta je to ostalo od Dzingis-kana?

Marko Paunović said...

Zato i jeste zanimljiva knjiga, sto dovodi u pitanje preovladjujuce misljenje.

Evo odgovora autora na pitanje sta je ostalo od Mongola:

The Mon­gols made no tech­no­log­ical break­throughs, found­ed no new re­li­gions, wrote few books or dra­mas, and gave the world no new crops or meth­ods of agri­cul­ture. Their own crafts­men could not weave cloth, cast met­al, make pot­tery, or even bake bread. They man­ufac­tured nei­ther porce­lain nor pot­tery, paint­ed no pic­tures, and built no build­ings. Yet, as their army con­quered cul­ture af­ter cul­ture, they col­lect­ed and passed all of these skills from one civ­iliza­tion to the next.

The on­ly per­ma­nent struc­tures Genghis Khan erect­ed were bridges. Al­though he spurned the build­ing of cas­tles, forts, cities, or walls, as he moved across the land­scape, he prob­ably built more bridges than any ruler in his­to­ry. He spanned hun­dreds of streams and rivers in or­der to make the move­ment of his armies and goods quick­er. The Mon­gols de­lib­er­ate­ly opened the world to a new com­merce not on­ly in goods, but al­so in ideas and knowl­edge. The Mon­gols brought Ger­man min­ers to Chi­na and Chi­nese doc­tors to Per­sia. The trans­fers ranged from the mon­umen­tal to the triv­ial. They spread the use of car­pets ev­ery­where they went and trans­plant­ed lemons and car­rots from Per­sia to Chi­na, as well as noo­dles, play­ing cards, and tea from Chi­na to the West. They brought a met­al­work­er from Paris to build a foun­tain on the dry steppes of Mon­go­lia, re­cruit­ed an En­glish no­ble­man to serve as in­ter­preter in their army, and took the prac­tice of Chi­nese fin­ger­print­ing to Per­sia. They fi­nanced the build­ing of Chris­tian church­es in Chi­na, Bud­dhist tem­ples and stu­pas in Per­sia, and Mus­lim Ko­ran­ic schools in Rus­sia. The Mon­gols swept across the globe as con­querors, but al­so as civ­iliza­tion’s un­ri­valed cul­tur­al car­ri­ers.

The Mon­gols who in­her­it­ed Genghis Khan’s em­pire ex­er­cised a de­ter­mined drive to move prod­ucts and com­modi­ties around and to com­bine them in ways that pro­duced en­tire­ly nov­el prod­ucts and un­prece­dent­ed in­ven­tion. When their high­ly skilled en­gi­neers from Chi­na, Per­sia, and Eu­rope com­bined Chi­nese gun­pow­der with Mus­lim flamethrow­ers and ap­plied Eu­ro­pean bell-​cast­ing tech­nol­ogy, they pro­duced the can­non, an en­tire­ly new or­der of tech­no­log­ical in­no­va­tion, from which sprang the vast mod­ern ar­se­nal of weapons from pis­tols to mis­siles. While each item had some sig­nif­icance, the larg­er im­pact came in the way the Mon­gols se­lect­ed and com­bined tech­nolo­gies to cre­ate un­usu­al hy­brids.

Anonymous said...

Uh. Autor je zaljubljen u Mongole, pa su mu zaključci zamagljeni. Pored toga, moram reći da su mi posve novi podaci poput saksonskih rudara u Kini, ili engleskih prevodilaca... To su baš revolucionarni podaci.

Pretpostavljam da je trgovina, razmena dobara i znanja, ono što Vas je navelo da objavite ovaj tekst, ali da skrenem pažnju:
taj je prostor bio itekako živ pre Džingis-kana, sva je prilika i življi pre pojava mongolskih vojski, koje odlikuje razaranje velikih gradova, teror i pokolj.

Speaker said...

Meni je dosta da su se Mongoli napili krvi Rusima, i to je dovoljna zasluga da im ja budem zahvalan :)) Usput, bili su uspešni i na drugim frontovima, genetičari kažu da, sa vrlo velikom verovatnoćom, jer nosi jedan karakterističan genetski marker koji je lako pratiti, Džingis-kanova loza danas ima preko osamnaest miliona potomaka širom sveta, a ponajviše, naravno, u Aziji :)))